Beekeeping is the business of raising bees artificially and taking their products including honey, royal jelly, propolis, pollen, beeswax, bee pupa and bee venom. It is included in livestock production in a broad sense, so bees are also livestock in a broad sense. Bee farming has a history of thousands of years, and the use of honey began in the age of fishing and hunting. In the Mesolithic period of 7000 BC, in Spanish murals, there are pictures of women climbing vines and collecting honey. In the temple of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt in 2600 BC, there is a relief carved with beekeepers blowing smoke on honeycombs and driving bees. This is the earliest history of raising bees in the world. Historians and researchers infer from the results of studying Oracle bones that my country has been beekeeping since the Yin and Shang era.
The environmental conditions of beekeeping sites are closely related to the success or failure of beekeeping and the output of bee products. Therefore, bee farms should be established in places with rich nectar sources and suitable environments. Within a radius of 2.5 kilometers around the beekeeping site, there must be at least one or two large areas of major nectar plants throughout the year. The beekeeping site requires a sunny leeward, high dry terrain, no water accumulation, and a suitable microclimate. It is best to have courtyard walls or dense forests in the northwest. In mountainous areas, you should choose the slopes at the foot of the mountain or the south of the mountainside, with a wind barrier on the back, and the front terrain is open and sunny, with sparse trees in the middle of the site. It can be protected from cold winds in winter and spring, and there are small trees to shade in summer to avoid the hot sun. It is an ideal place for construction. There should be a clean water source near the bee farm. If there is a stream with continuous water all year round, it is more ideal for bees to collect water. The front of the bee farm should not be close to reservoirs, lakes, or rivers.
Nectar is the basis of beekeeping production. Before deciding where to place bees, be sure to investigate the type, area, and flowering period of nectar plants. The main nectar plants that can collect a large amount of commercial honey include: rapeseed in oil crops; osmanthus and alfalfa in forage green manure; jujube in fruit trees; locust in forest; wattle in shrubs. Usually, a swarm of bees needs about 2-4 acres of nectar plants. It is also necessary to understand the flowering period of various nectar plants and the nectar production of bees over the years. The place for placing bees should be selected within 2 kilometers of the main nectar source plants. The closer the apiary is to the nectar plant, the better. There must be a clean water source near the bee farm. Such as lakes, creeks, canals, etc., to ensure that bees collect water and beekeepers' domestic water. The bee farm should be located on a flat, dry, sunny, open to the southeast and no obstacles. It is best to have a hillside or house or fence in the northwest. In addition, places with tweeters, street lights, and insect traps nearby are not suitable for bees.
The annual management of the bee colony is mainly based on the season, climate, nectar source conditions and the living habits of the bees, taking appropriate technical measures to make the individual and colony of the bees develop and reproduce well, and provide as much surplus as possible except for the consumption of the bees. Bee products. In temperate regions, the queen bee stops laying eggs in winter, and the bee colony survives the winter by ingesting stored honey in the nest. For this reason, it is necessary to replace the aging queen bee in early autumn and carry out reward feeding to encourage the queen bee to lay more eggs to strengthen the wintering bee colony, and at the same time reserve enough food for the wintering. Spring and summer are the periods when queen bees resume laying eggs and new bees replace old bees overwintering. At this time, the number of individual bees increases and the colony increases. It is also the main honey-flowing period for nectar plants and the peak honey-gathering season for bees. When the main honey flow period comes, a king board must be added between the nest box and the next box to restrict the queen bee to lay eggs in the nest box, and put the egg worm spleen and the pupa spleen shortly covered into the nest box. The spleen and mature pupa spleen are put into the secondary box, so that there are no bee larvae on the honey-storing spleen, so as to store honey and extract honey; at the same time, enlarge the nest door and expand the bee path to accelerate the evaporation of honey and reduce the bee Honey making activities. When the spleen of the secondary box is filled with honey and part of it has been sealed and matured, the honey can be harvested in a timely and appropriate amount under the premise of taking into account the needs of bee colony proliferation. In the annual management, it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of bee predators.
Beekeeping started in ancient Egypt and Greece as early as the epoch, but modern beekeeping is based on F. Huber's precise observation and research on bees are based on the development of various design schemes related to breeding methods and honey shakers. Farming as an industrialization in Japan began in the Meiji era. The existing bees are Apis drosata, A． florea, A. indica, A. There are four kinds of mellifica, most of them are the last European species
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